An expert panel on women’s cancers and human papillomavirus (HPV) assembles at the UNM Comprehensive Cancer Center to give remarks and answer questions on women's cancers, HPV and their impact worldwide.
The panel features Shobha S. Krishnan, MD, FAAFP, the invited guest lecturer, and UNM Cancer Center faculty members Carolyn Y. Muller, MD, FACOG, and Cosette M. Wheeler, PhD.
Phase 1A clinical trials opened at several sites across the country for a new drug that targets solid cancer tumors, the first time ever the drug was used in people. Olivier Rixe, MD, PhD, of the UNM Comprehensive Cancer Center, oversaw the clinical trials’ national protocol development and directed the trial in New Mexico. He was also involved in developing the drug through preclinical trials, to its Investigational New Drug application.
“We offer what other cancer centers, like Harvard and MD Anderson, offer their patients,” Rixe says. “The patients treated at UNM Cancer Center are among the first in the world to be given this drug.”
— Terry Novak, RN
The drug, called BXQ-350, has been shown in pre-clinical studies to induce cancer cells to die but have little effect on normal cells. Rixe hopes the drug will continue to show promise for those whose brain cancer has recurred. He is especially hopeful for those diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme, a particularly aggressive brain cancer.
“It was an honor for me to be part of this trial,” says Novak. “The drug was very well tolerated with minimal side effects.”
Cancer is not a single disease, but more than 200. How will the cures for cancer be found? The answer is research, says the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), which is the authoritative source of information about advances in the causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer. Learn more at the American Association for Cancer Research site.
Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxin found in groundwater that is absorbed into what we eat and drink – including foods such as rice and apple juice – and New Mexico has some of the highest concentrations of the metallic mineral in the U.S.
— Jim Liu, PhD
It’s considered a co-carcinogen, because it promotes the activity of other cancer-causing agents. Despite this, UNM researcher Jim Liu, PhD, thinks arsenic has potential as an anti-cancer treatment.
Clinical research at the UNM Cancer Center impacts how we help people in the future and may even help the people enrolled in clinical trials today. Our clinical trials include studies to prevent, screen, diagnose and treat cancer. And the New Mexico Cancer Care Alliance offers access to clinical trials to all New Mexicans, in their own communities.
Fewer than half of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer live for five years or more. Sarah Adams, MD, hopes her new clinical trial will change this outcome. Adams recently opened a clinical trial at The University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center to test a new approach to defeat ovarian cancer. The clinical trial treats women whose ovarian cancer results from mutated BRCA genes. It uses one drug that kills the ovarian cancer cells and another that boosts the immune system in response to the dying cancer cells.
Ovarian cancer has unclear symptoms and no screening tests that catch it in its early stages. Often, ovarian cancer spreads to other organs before a woman even knows she has it. Surgery and chemotherapy can help women at the beginning of their treatment, and this gave Adams the idea for her new approach.
— Sarah Adams, MD
Adams’ therapy combines the PARP inhibitor with a specific antibody. An antibody is a protein that attaches to a target cell. The antibody in Adams’ therapy helps one type of immune cell, called a T-cell, to find and devour ovarian tumor cells. Untreated ovarian tumors often produce chemical signals that keep T-cells away. But, the PAPR inhibitor combined with the antibody alert the entire immune system to the ovarian cancer cells.
The clinical trial is currently open to women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Watch the news interviews for full details.
UNM Cancer Center is a founding member of the Oncology Research Information Exchange Network. ORIEN is an innovative partnership between top cancer centers to share information that will help search for cures and bring personalized care to New Mexicans.
UNM Cancer Center scientists use already-approved drugs Cancer cells don’t die when they’re supposed to. Animal and human bodies follow an orderly process of birthing new cells and killing old ones. But cancer cells escape programmed cell death, called apoptosis, and multiply uncontrollably.
“There are mechanisms that eliminate mutated cells, normally,” says Alexandre Chigaev, PhD. “But one of the ways that cancer cells survive [is] that those mechanisms break.” Chigaev and his team described their discovery of the apoptosis-evading process that leukemia cells use in a paper published in Oncotarget.
All cells produce a molecule called cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cyclic AMP, through normal cellular processes. If it builds up, cyclic AMP can harm the cell, so the cell converts it to a nontoxic form. Most normal cells can maintain low levels of cyclic AMP because their conversion system can keep up. If too much cyclic AMP piles up, though, the apoptosis process starts and the cell dies.
– Alexandre Chigaev, PhD
Chigaev and his team discovered that leukemia cells could pump cyclic AMP out. But when they loaded cyclic AMP into normal blood cells, the cyclic AMP remained inside. The team confirmed their model by testing several different drugs that block leukemia cells’ ability to pump cyclic AMP out.
The drugs, all approved by the Food and Drug Administration, are used to fight malaria and fungal infections. They disable the cellular machinery that leukemia cells have to pump out cyclic AMP. When that machinery is disabled, the leukemia cells died. Because normal cells don’t have such machinery, the drugs had no effect on them. Chigaev and his team hope to begin leukemia clinical trials soon.
Our team of scientists develop new approaches to treat cancer by studying: genome sequencing, cell signaling, behaviors and habits in different populations, and new drug compounds. They work within four NCI research programs.
Most people have never heard of mastocytosis. It’s a rare, sometimes deadly, immune disorder. New research may help those with advanced mastocytosis and possibly many more people, too.
— Tracy George, MD
George was part of the international team that recently published the results of its study on mastocytosis in the New England Journal of Medicine.
“Mast cells are normal cells in the body that mediate the body’s allergic and inflammatory responses,” says George. “But people with mast cell disease have too many mast cells and they’re abnormal.” Too many abnormal mast cells can cause allergic reactions and inflammation.
Different subtypes of the disease differ in the how serious these responses are. People with indolent mastocytosis may have mild symptoms and lead normal lives but those with advanced mastocytosis — the most deadly subtype is called mast cell leukemia — live less than six months after their diagnosis.
The Food and Drug Administration has approved only one drug, called imatinib, to treat advanced mastocytosis. Imatinib blocks the action of a cellular protein called a tyrosine kinase receptor. But people with a mutation in a gene that codes for a tryrosine kinase receptor do not respond to imatinib. And, George says, most people with advanced mastocytosis have the mutation.
George, who is the American expert in mastocytosis pathology, served as the pathologist for the international clinical trial. Sixteen people in the clinical trial had mast cell leukemia. “For those patients who did respond,” says George, “their median survival has not been reached. So that means [some are] still living, which is unbelievable.”