Fero Lab Publications

Publications

The miR-106a~363<sup>Xpcl1</sup> miRNA cluster induces murine T cell lymphoma despite transcriptional activation of the p27<sup>Kip1</sup> cell cycle inhibitor


The miR-106a~363 cluster encodes 6 miRNAs on the X-chromosome which are abundant in blood cells and overexpressed in a variety of malignancies. The constituent miRNA of miR-106a~363 have functional activities in vitro that are predicted to be both oncogenic and tumor suppressive, yet little is known about their physiological functions in vivo. Mature miR-106a~363 (Mirc2) miRNAs are processed from an intragenic, non-protein encoding gene referred to as Xpcl1 (or Kis2), situated at an...

Prognostic significance of acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity in acute myeloid leukemia


CONCLUSIONS: CnLOH has important prognostic significance in patients with AML. CGAT can replace imbalance fluorescence in situ hybridization and the authors recommend the routine use of CGAT to detect cnLOH, particularly among patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics.

T-cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of p27Kip1 in the regulation of CD8 T-cell memory


CD8 T cells exhibit dynamic alterations in proliferation and apoptosis during various phases of the CD8 T-cell response, but the mechanisms that regulate cellular proliferation from the standpoint of CD8 T-cell memory are not well defined. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) functions as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in T cells, and it has been implicated in regulating cellular processes, including differentiation, transcription and migration. Here, we investigated whether...

Effect of Xpcl1 activation and p27(Kip1) loss on gene expression in murine lymphoma


Mice lacking the p27(Kip1) Cdk inhibitor (Cdkn1b) exhibit increased susceptibility to lymphomas from the Maloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV), and exhibit a high frequency of viral integrations at Xpcl1 (Kis2), a locus on the X-chromosome. Xpcl1 encodes miR-106a~363, a cluster of microRNAs that are expressed in response to adjacent retroviral integrations. We report the first large-scale profile of microRNA expression in MuLV-induced lymphomas, in combination with microarray gene expression...

p27(Kip1) is required to maintain proliferative quiescence in the adult cochlea and pituitary


Cell cycle inhibitors, such as the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor proteins and retinoblastoma (Rb) family members, control exit from the cell cycle during the development of a variety of terminally differentiated tissues. It is unclear whether sustained expression of these proteins is required to prevent cell cycle re-entry in quiescent and terminally differentiated cells. The organ of Corti (cochlear sensory epithelium) and pars intermedia (intermediate lobe of the pituitary) are two...

Comparative analysis of risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease and for chronic graft-versus-host disease according to National Institutes of Health consensus criteria


Risk factors for grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and for chronic GVHD as defined by National Institutes of Health consensus criteria were evaluated and compared in 2941 recipients of first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation at our center. In multivariate analyses, the profiles of risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD were similar, with some notable differences. Recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching and the use of unrelated donors had a greater effect...

Gene regulation and epigenetic remodeling in murine embryonic stem cells by c-Myc


CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that Myc induces widespread and diverse changes in histone methylation in ES cells. We postulate that these changes are indirect effects of Myc mediated by its regulation of target genes involved in chromatin remodeling. We further show that a subset of PcG-bound genes with bivalent histone methylation patterns are bound and regulated in response to altered c-Myc levels. Our data indicate that in mES cells c-Myc binds, regulates, and influences the histone...

Evaluation of NIH consensus criteria for classification of late acute and chronic GVHD


Historically, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) beyond 100 days after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) was called chronic GVHD, even if the clinical manifestations were indistinguishable from acute GVHD. In 2005, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a consensus conference that proposed new criteria for diagnosis and classification of chronic GVHD for clinical trials. According to the consensus criteria, clinical manifestations rather than time after transplantation should be...

Endocrine dysfunction in p27Kip1 deficient mice and susceptibility to Wnt-1 driven breast cancer


The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27(Kip1) (p27) is a marker of prognosis in many cancers, including breast cancer. Low p27 expression correlates with poor prognosis, especially in hormone receptor positive breast tumors. This association suggests a role for p27 in hormone-dependent cancer. We used the Wnt-1 transgenic mouse model to further explore the role of p27 in hormone-driven breast cancer. We found that p27 deficiency did not alter breast cancer rate in either male or female...

A mechanism misregulating p27 in tumors discovered in a functional genomic screen


The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) is a tumor suppressor gene in mice, and loss of p27 protein is a negative prognostic indicator in human cancers. Unlike other tumor suppressors, the p27 gene is rarely mutated in tumors. Therefore misregulation of p27, rather than loss of the gene, is responsible for tumor-associated decreases in p27 protein levels. We performed a functional genomic screen in p27(+/-) mice to identify genes that regulate p27 during lymphomagenesis. This study...

Differential gene expression of p27Kip1 and Rb knockout pituitary tumors associated with altered growth and angiogenesis


Mice lacking the p27Kip1 Cdk inhibitor, like mice lacking Rb, develop pituitary tumors involving pars intermedia melanotrophs, yet p27(Kip1) tumors are genetically distinct from Rb derived tumors as they exhibit haploid insufficiency. We compared tumors from mice with p27( Kip1) constitutive and tissue specific null mutations to tumors arising in tissue specific Rb knockout mice with the aim of determining whether they are distinguished by quantitative or qualitative differences. The rate of...

Genetic mosaics reveal both cell-autonomous and cell-nonautonomous function of murine p27Kip1


Loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) leads to an overall increase in animal growth, pituitary tumors, and hyperplasia of hematopoietic organs, yet it is unknown whether all cells function autonomously in response to p27(Kip1) activity or whether certain cells take cues from their neighbors. In addition, there is currently no genetic evidence that tumor suppression by p27(Kip1) is cell-autonomous because biallelic gene inactivation is absent from tumors arising in p27(Kip1)...

Negative cell-cycle regulators cooperatively control self-renewal and differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells


Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are capable of shifting from a state of relative quiescence under homeostatic conditions to rapid proliferation under conditions of stress. The mechanisms that regulate the relative quiescence of stem cells and its association with self-renewal are unclear, as is the contribution of molecular regulators of the cell cycle to these decisions. Understanding the mechanisms that govern these transitions will provide important insights into cell-cycle regulation of...

MAD1 and p27(KIP1) cooperate to promote terminal differentiation of granulocytes and to inhibit Myc expression and cyclin E-CDK2 activity


To understand how cellular differentiation is coupled to withdrawal from the cell cycle, we have focused on two negative regulators of the cell cycle, the MYC antagonist MAD1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1). Generation of Mad1/p27(KIP1) double-null mice revealed a number of synthetic effects between the null alleles of Mad1 and p27(KIP1), including embryonic lethality, increased proliferation, and impaired differentiation of granulocyte precursors. Furthermore, with...

Gene disruption of p27(Kip1) allows cell proliferation in the postnatal and adult organ of corti


Hearing loss is most often the result of hair-cell degeneration due to genetic abnormalities or ototoxic and traumatic insults. In the postembryonic and adult mammalian auditory sensory epithelium, the organ of Corti, no hair-cell regeneration has ever been observed. However, nonmammalian hair-cell epithelia are capable of regenerating sensory hair cells as a consequence of nonsensory supporting-cell proliferation. The supporting cells of the organ of Corti are highly specialized, terminally...

A new pathway for mitogen-dependent cdk2 regulation uncovered in p27(Kip1)-deficient cells


CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of Cdk2 activity in mitogen-starved fibroblasts is usually performed by the CKI p27, and to a minor extent by p21. Remarkably p130, a protein in the Rb family that is not related to either p21 or p27, will directly substitute for the CKIs and restore normal CDK regulation by mitogens in cells lacking both p27 and p21. This compensatory pathway may be important in settings in which CKIs are not expressed at standard levels, as is the case in many human tumors.

Modulation of apoptosis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1)


Proliferation and apoptosis are increased in many types of inflammatory diseases. A role for the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) (p27) in limiting proliferation has been shown. In this study, we show that p27(-/-) mesangial cells and fibroblasts have strikingly elevated rates of apoptosis, not proliferation, when deprived of growth factors. Apoptosis was rescued by restoration of p27 expression. Cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, but not cyclin E-CDK2 activity, was increased...

The murine gene p27Kip1 is haplo-insufficient for tumour suppression


p27Kip is a candidate human tumour-suppressor protein, because it is able to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases and block cell proliferation. Abnormally low levels of the p27 protein are frequently found in human carcinomas, and these low levels correlate directly with both histological aggressiveness and patient mortality. However, it has not been possible to establish a causal link between p27 and tumour suppression, because only rare instances of homozygous inactivating mutations of the p27...

p27Kip1 alters the response of cells to mitogen and is part of a cell-intrinsic timer that arrests the cell cycle and initiates differentiation


CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that p27 is part of the normal timer that determines when oligodendrocyte precursor cells stop dividing and differentiate, at least in vitro. It seems likely that p27 plays a similar role in many other cell lineages, which could explain the phenotypes of the p27-/- and p27+/- mice.

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 safeguards against inflammatory injury


The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 controls cell proliferation in response to normal mitogenic stimuli. We show here that p27Kip1 also safeguards against excessive cell proliferation in specific pathophysiologic settings. We used experimental glomerulonephritis as a paradigm for immune mediated inflammation and ureteral obstruction as a model for non-immune mediated inflammation. Renal function was substantially decreased in nephritic p27-/- mice compared with control mice, and this...

A syndrome of multiorgan hyperplasia with features of gigantism, tumorigenesis, and female sterility in p27(Kip1)-deficient mice


Targeted disruption of the murine p27(Kip1) gene caused a gene dose-dependent increase in animal size without other gross morphologic abnormalities. All tissues were enlarged and contained more cells, although endocrine abnormalities were not evident. Thymic hyperplasia was associated with increased T lymphocyte proliferation, and T cells showed enhanced IL-2 responsiveness in vitro. Thus, p27 deficiency may cause a cell-autonomous defect resulting in enhanced proliferation in response to...

Inducible expression and cytogenetic effects of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease in Chinese hamster ovary cells


The cytogenetic endpoints sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberrations are widely used as indicators of DNA damage induced by mutagenic carcinogens. Chromosome aberrations appear to result directly from DNA double-strand breaks, but the lesion(s) giving rise to SCE formation remains unknown. Most compounds that induce SCEs induce a spectrum of lesions in DNA. To investigate the role of double-strand breakage in SCE formation, we constructed a plasmid that gives rise to one specific...

Induced sister chromatid exchange frequency is not increased in homogeneously staining regions that contain amplified genes


Gene amplification is a process by which cells become resistant to selective agents by increasing gene copy number and overproducing specific enzymes. The molecular mechanism by which gene amplification occurs is unknown, but unequal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) has been suggested as one possibility. Unequal SCE results in one chromatid containing an extra copy of a selected gene that is deleted in the sister chromatid. Two predictions of the unequal SCE model are that agents that increase...

Spontaneous and 3-aminobenzamide-induced sister-chromatid exchange frequencies estimated by ring chromosome analysis


Ring chromosomes offer an opportunity to measure sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies without the use of an agent to differentiate sister chromatids: SCE frequencies can be determined from the number of dicentric rings formed in cells from a cell line carrying a monocentric ring chromosome. Ash is a pseudotetraploid Chinese hamster ovary cell line in which approximately 40% of metaphase cells have a large ring chromosome. We have used this cell line to investigate the spontaneous rate of...

Potentiation of sister chromatid exchange by 3-aminobenzamide is not modulated by topoisomerases or proteases


Poly(ADP-ribose) is synthesized in response to DNA strand breaks and covalently modifies numerous intracellular proteins. We have proposed that this modification regulates, i.e., inhibits, the activity of these enzymes, e.g., topoisomerases and proteases, which could otherwise cause additional DNA damage or alterations in chromatin structure. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by 3-amino-benzamide (3AB) in cells exposed to DNA-damaging agents would, according to this proposal, eliminate...

A cytogenetic investigation of DNA rereplication after hydroxyurea treatment: implications for gene amplification


Although the mechanisms leading to gene amplification are poorly understood, it has recently been proposed that the initial event of amplification is the rereplication of a variable, but relatively large, amount of the genome within a single cell cycle. We sought evidence for rereplication of DNA as a basis for gene amplification through two cytogenetic techniques: differential staining for sister-chromatid exchange analysis and premature chromosome condensation. Synchronized Chinese hamster...